Death camps: 4
Danchun [S. Hamgyong Province] (gold mining; death by starvation & harsh conditions)
Haengyong [N. Hamgyong Province] (coal mining & farm labor by men, woman, & children; death by gas chamber, starvation, & harsh conditions)
Jeonger-ri [N. Hamgyong Province] (copper & iron mining, lumber & brick production, farm labor; death by starvation & harsh conditions)
Samdeung-ri, Kangdong [S. Pyong-an Province] (limestone mining & furnacing, cement production; death by starvation & harsh conditions)
Forced-labor concentration camps: 17
3 for women (Kaechon [S. Pyong-an] , Sinuiju [N. Pyong-an])
4 for women & pregnant women (subjected to forced abortions or infanticides) (Nongpo/Chongjin City [N. Hamgyong], Onsong [N. Hamgyong], Oro [S. Hamgyong], Yodok [S. Hamgyong])
2 for women and children (Bukchang [S. Pyong-an], Hwasong [N. Hamgyong])
Torture-facility prisons: 13
1 for women (Hamju-kun [S. Hamgyong])
Barnett, A., Revealed: the gas chamber horror of North Koreas gulag, Guardian Unlimited, www.guardian.com.uk, Feb. 1, 2004.
Hawk, D., The Hidden Gulag: Exposing North Koreas Prison Camps, U.S. Committee for Human Rights in North Korea, Washington, DC, 2003.